വായിക്കനെതുന്നവര്‍ താല്പര്യമുള്ള ലേഖനങ്ങള്‍ വായനക്കുശേഷം അവരവരുടെ കൂട്ടുകാര്‍ക്കും, സുഹൃത്തുക്കള്‍ക്കും, ഇടതു സൈഡ് ലുള്ള ലൈക്‌ ബട്ടനിലൂടെയോ, താഴെയുള്ള (പോസ്റ്റിന്റെ) ലൈക്‌ ബട്ടനിലൂടെയോ ക്ലിക്കി അവരെയും ആരോഗ്യ വാര്‍ത്തകള്‍ അറിയിക്കൂ, അതുപോലെ പുതിയ സൈറ്റ് ലിങ്കുകള്‍ ഇടയ്ക്കിടെ അപ്ഡേറ്റ് ചെയ്യുന്നത് വിസിറ്റ് ചെയ്തു നോക്കി ആരോഗ്യകരമായ സൈറ്റ്കളെ കുറിച്ച് മനസ്സിലാക്കി വയ്ക്കുന്നതും നല്ലതാണു.[ബ്ലോഗ്‌ വലുതാക്കി വായിക്കാന്‍ കണ്ട്രോള്‍ [അറിയാത്തവര്‍ക്കായി കീ ബോര്‍ഡില്‍ "സിടിആര്‍എല്‍" എന്നാ ബട്ടന്‍.] ബട്ടന്‍ അമര്‍ത്തി മൗസ് സ്ക്രോല്‍ ബട്ടന്‍ മുന്നിലേക്ക്‌ തിരിക്കുക ആവശ്യമുള്ളത്ര വലുതാക്കി ബ്ലോഗ്‌ വായിക്കാന്‍ കഴിയം; ചെറുതാക്കാന്‍ മൗസ് സ്ക്രോല്‍ താഴേക്ക്‌ തിരിക്കുക. ][ഫേസ് ബുക്ക്‌ വീഡിയോ ഓപ്പൺ ആകാൻ കുറച്ചു സമയം എടുത്തേക്കും., പെശ്യൻസ് കാണിക്കുക ! ]
[ 1 apple a day - no doctor, 1 tulsi leaf a day - no cancer, 1 lemon a day- no fat, 1 cup of milk a day - no bone problems. 3 litres water a day - no diseases.] കേരളത്തിലെ ആകാശ വാണി നിലയങ്ങൾ സംയുക്തമായി സംപ്രേഷണം ചെയ്യുന്ന. ഡോക്ടറോട് ചോദിക്കാം തൽസമയ ഫോൺ ഇന് പരിപാടി ശനിയഴ്ചാ രാവിലെ 11 മുതൽ 12 വരെ വിളികേണ്ട നംബർ1707066. ഔട്ട്‌ ഓഫ് തൃശൂർ; 0487 Food complaint Toll free number 18004251125; Food helpline Tollfree 1800112100, "Drunken Driving is punishable", " Alcohol consumption is injurious to Health"

Monday, August 30, 2010

HEALTH - KERALA AT A GLANCE !

Kerala has won international recognition for its outstanding achievements in the health sector. The main characteristics of Kerala’s health gains are low infant mortality, high life expectancy at birth , low birth rate , low death rate and virtual elimination of many communicable diseases .The overall population growth rate of bout nine per thousand during the census decade 91-2001 indicates that Kerala is on track to achieve zero population growth quite soon.

Health Status of Kerala

Kerala has achieved international recognition for its outstanding achievements in the health sector. The main characteristics of Kerala’s health gains are low infant and child mortality, high life expectancy at birth, virtual elimination of many communicable diseases and replacement level birth rate in many districts. The overall population growth rate of about nine per thousand during the census decade 91-2001 indicates that Kerala is on track to achieve zero population growth quite soon. The current health indicators are summarised below.

Table 1

Current Health Indicators
Indicator Year Rate
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) 1998 15.6
Death Rate (CDR) 1998 6.4
Birth Rate 1998 18.2

Life Expectancy at birth

Male 1998 69
Female 1998 74

The statistics given above is a composite of relatively backward districts of northern Kerala and more advanced southern districts, were both IMR & CBR have reached single digit figures. The declining trends in all health indices are presented in table 2.

Health Infrastructure

A substantial share of the credit for Kerala’s health achievements goes to the remarkable reach of the health care system within the state. The special distribution of the health care institutions enable the people to make use of the system of their choice which generally is available within easy reach.
The principal systems of health care are Modern Medicine, Ayurveda and Homeopathy. Of these, Ayurveda is indigenous to the state while Modern Medicine and Homeopathy are systems introduced and legitimised in the 20th century. Though the Government is promoting all three systems by establishing separate departments for each, Modern Medicine dominates in terms of reach, infrastructure and budgetary expenditure. The salient information provided in table 3.

Modern Medicine
A major factor which contributed to the present level of health development is the vast health care infrastructure which has facilitated access to institutional care. The infrastructure (allopathy) consists of 143 hospitals with 31819 beds consisting of 5 general hospitals, 11 district hospitals, 8 W&C hospitals, 6 medical college hospitals, 36 Taluk hospitals, 3 leprosy hospitals, 3 mental hospitals, 3 T.B hospitals, 67 other intermediary hospitals and one Ophthalmology hospital (Regional Institute of Ophthalmology), dispensaries, T.B. Clinics and leprosy clinics, community health centres and primary health centres. There are 1317 medical institutions (including grant-in-aid institutions) in the state with 45684 beds.
A significant feature of the modern medical care system is that private care facilities have surpassed Government facilities in the state. All attributes of modern health care like number of doctors, institutions and beds are dominated by the private sector. It is estimated that in the year 2000 there were about 70000 beds in the private sector as against 45684 in the Government sector. During the year the number of doctors in the Government sector was less than 6000, while the private sector employed over 12000 doctors.
The number of institutions in private sector exceeded 5000 as against 1317. The same trend is manifested in Homeopathy and Ayurveda. In 2000 it is estimated there were 5000 Ayurvedic private institutions as against 792 institutions under the Government. The private beds, however, are not much more than the Government. In Homeopathy the domination is still more evident with about 3200 private Homeopathy institutions as against 555 Government institutions.
Rural Health Infrastructure in Kerala
As mentioned earlier, the uniqueness of Kerala health infrastructure is the easy access. There are 105 community health centres, 944 primary health centres and 5094 sub centres in Kerala. Each subcentre in Kerala serves a population of 4,472 as against 4,600 at the all India level. The catchment area for a sub center in the Government sector is only 6.97 sq.kms. while for a PHC it is only 37.6 sq.kms. If the private institutions are also taken into account, the catchment area for one modern medical institution works out to less than one sq.km. The access to modern medical institutions is reflected by the near universal institutional delivery in Kerala. The latest figure suggest that 96 percent of the deliveries take place in institutions, a figure that compares well with that of the developed nations.
Each primary health primary on an average serves a population of 25,591 and each community health centre a population of 2.30 lakh in Kerala.
Health Care in Other Sectors
Health care institutions are also provided in both the co-operative sector and insurance medical service sector. At present, there are 57 co-operative hospitals with 2740 beds and 397 doctors, 585 nurses and 708 para medical
staff in the co-operative health sector. There are 13 ESI hospitals with 1274 beds and 136 dispensaries in the state.
Immunization States
The state has almost attained universal immunization. Near hundred percent coverage was achieved for Polio, BCG, Measles, DPT and T.T. for children under five years. The state is on the merge of eradicating poliomyelitis.

Medical Education

Under Modern Medicine, there are 7 Medical Colleges. Of these six are run by the Government and the other by a Co-operative academy. There are three Dental colleges and three Nursing colleges. The annual intake of students under different courses is 800 for MBBS, 80 for BDS, 28 for B.Pharm, 24 for B.Sc. MLT, 150 for B.Sc Nursing, 186 for various PG courses, 40 for super speciality courses, 24 for M.Sc Nursing, 8 for M.Pharm, 30 for M.D.S. etc.

There are 7,970 beds in all the six medical college hospitals. 3,97,576 in patients were treated in all the medical colleges during 2000. The number of out patients treated stood at 23,66,014.

Nursing Education

The annual intake under different Nursing courses is 3,077. The three nursing colleges attached with medical colleges at Thriuvananthapuram, Kottayam and Kozhikode together have a total annual intake of 150 students for B.Sc nursing and 60 students for General nursing. There are 24 students for M.Sc Nursing in Thiruvananthapuram and Kozhikkod nursing colleges. There are 15 government Nursing Schools under the department of health services. Of these 11 schools conduct General Nursing (3Year) course and 4 schools impart Junior Public Health Nurses (18 months) Course.

Family Welfare Infrastructure

Family Welfare Programme in Kerala is being implemented through a network of 944 PHCs, 105 Community health centres and 5094 sub centres. The achievements under family welfare programmes for the last two years and district wise deatils of family welfare programme relating to 1999-2000 are given in Table 4.



Ayurveda

Around 600 BC, in India, a new system of medicine evolved. A system that in addition to treating an ailment, stressed on its prevention. A system that came to be called Ayurveda.
This tradition of health care was followed by the Dravidians and Aryans alike, and has been practiced ever since. Today, it's unique, indispensable branch of medicine - a complete naturalistic system that depends on the diagnosis of your body's humours vata, pitta and kapha - to achieve the right balance.
Ayurveda believes in the treatment of not just the affected part, but the individual as a whole. Making it the natural way to fresh yourself, eliminate all toxic imbalances from the body and thus regain resistance and good health.
Kerala's equable climate, natural abundance of forests (with a wealth of herbs and medicinal plants), and the cool monsoon season (June-November) are best suited for Ayurveda's curative and restorative packages.
In fact, today, Kerala is the only State in India which practices this system of medicine with absolute dedication.
Every object-plant, animal or human - according to the Panchabhootha Philosophy (5 elements of philosophy), is constituted of Vata, Pitta, Kapha.
The concentration of these elements vary in each individual and therefore the time, place, duration and kind of treatment required to restore the balance also needs to change. This is why we have a separate system of diagnosis and treatment for each patient. And a season for undergoing Ayurvedic programmes - the monsoon. The atmosphere remains dust-free and cool, opening the pores of the body to the maximum, making it most receptive to herbal oils and therapy.

Rejuvenative ProgrammesThe following are the major rejuvenational therapies of Ayurveda.
Rasayana chikitsaTones up the skin and rejuvenates and strengthens all the tissues so as to achieve ideal health and longevity. Increases Ojas (primary vitality) and improves Sattva (mental clarity) and thereby increases the resistance of the body. Includes head and face creams, body massage with herbal oil or powder by hand and foot intake of rejuvenative medicines and medicated steam bath. Herbal baths are also used.
Kayakalpa ChikitsaPrime treatment for retarding the ageing process, arresting the degeneration of body cells and immunization of the system. Includes intake of Rasayana (special Ayurvedic medicines and diet) and comprehensive body care programmes. Most effective for either sex if undertaken before the age of 50.
Sweda KarmaMedicine steam baths eliminate impurities from the body, improve the tone and complexion of the skin, reduce fat and are recommended for certain rheumatic diseases, particularly for pain. Precious herbs and herbal leaves are boiled and the steam is passed over the entire body for 10 to 20 minutes daily.
Hand massage with herbal oils or herbal powder improves blood circulation and tones up the muscles.
Meditation and YogaMental and physical exercises meant to isolate the ego from the body and mind-designed to home your concentration, improve health and help attain peace of mind through 8 stages of training.
Disciplined behaviour yama Self purification niyama Bodily postures such as the lotus position asana.
Control of breathing Pranayama Control of the senses Pratyahara, fixing of the mind on a chosen object dharsana. Meditation dhyana and Samadhi - a state of being where you experience absolute tranquility and well being.
Beauty careHerbal face pack, herbal oil massage, intake of herbal tea etc. improves complexion and beautifulness of the body.
Body SlimmingMedicated herbal powder and medicated herbal oil massages, and Ayurvedic diet of herbal juices etc. are part of the programme.
Overal Fitness Panchakarma Treatment A five fold treatment for mental and physical well being tunes the body, organs, mind, breath, nerves and purifies the blood.
Therapeutic ProgrammesTreatment for chronic head-aches, insomnia, mental tension and cases of hysteria, hallucination and insanity.
Dhara: Herbal oils, medicated milk or buttermilk and decoctions are poured on the forehead/whole body in a special manner.Variations include Oorhwanga Dhara (good for diseases of the eyes, ears and skin). Takra Dhara (for those suffering from memory loss, severe headache or insanity) and Sarvanga Dhara (for both head and body).Treatment to alleviate osteoarthritis, leukemia etc.
Snehapanam: Medicated ghee is given internally in a gradually increased quality of specific periods.
Treatment for spondilosis, rheumatic diseases like arthritis, paralysis, hemiplegia, nervous weakness and nervous disorders. Pizhichil: Lukewarm herbal oil is applied with fresh linen all over the body by trained masseurs in a rhythmic manner for a period of 1 to 11/2 hours daily for 7 to 21 days.Treatment for diseases like hemiplegia, paralysis, obsety and certain rheumatic ailments.
Udvarthanam: Therapeutic massage with herbal powders. Treatment for musculoskeletal ailments due to trauma or accidents.
Marma Chiksta: Treatment that works on the extremely sensitive vital points of the body (the 107 marmas).
Treatment for nasal ailments:Nasyam: Inhalation of medicated herbal preparations, decoction oils, ghee etx. to eliminate the morbid factors from the head and neck area.
Treatment for ear ailmentsKarnapooranam: Medicated oils are applied to the ear for 5 to 10 minutes daily to clean as well as treat specific ailments.
Preventing cataract and strengthening vision:Tharpanam: A treatment for the eyes effective in preventing cataract and strengthening the optic nerve.
Treatment for wasting of muscles, all types or rheumatism, sports injuries, pain in the joints, emaciation of the body or parts of the body and certain kinds of skin diseases.
Navarakizhi: The whole body is made to perspire by the external application of medicated rice packs in the form of blouses tied in muslin bags.Treatment for dryness of nostrils, mouth and throat, severe headaches, facial paralysis and burning sensation in the head.
Sirovasti: Lukewarm herbal oils are poured into a leather cap fitted on the head for specific durations as per physician's recommendation.
There are 113 ayurveda hospitals with 2604 beds and 679 dispensaries in the state. Out of 679 dispensaries, 26 are visha dispensaries, and there is one dispensary each under Sidha and Unani. Besides there are 112 grant-in-aid institutions. The hospitals consist of 14 district hospitals, 30 taluk head quarters hospitals, one marma hospital, two visha hospital, one mental hospital at Kottakal, one panchakarma hospital at Alappuzha, nature care centre at Varkala and 63 other hospitals. In the ayurvedic institutions, 190.03 lakh persons were treated as outpatients and 21184 persons as inpatients during 2000. The district-wise details of institutions, beds, doctors and patients treated are given in Table 9. There are five ayurveda colleges in the state, of which 3 are in government sector and 2 in private sector.

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